Table of Contents
   Acknowledgementsp. 11
   Introductionp. 13
   Attachment Theory
      Overview of Attachment Theoryp. 23
         What is attachment theory?p. 24
         Why are attachment relationships important?p. 25
         What happens when attachment relationships are insecure, unavailable or frightening?p. 26
         What happens as the child grows older?p. 28
      Attachment Theory: Caregiving and its Impact on Attachment and Explorationp. 31
         Characteristics of the attachment relationshipp. 31
         Attachment and exploratory behaviourp. 32
         Dimensions of caregivingp. 33
         How attachment behaviour changes through childhoodp. 36
         The internal working modelp. 39
      Attachment Theory: Patterns of Attachmentp. 45
         The secure attachment patternp. 45
         The organized insecure attachment patternsp. 48
         The disorganized/controlling attachment patternp. 54
         Non-attachmentp. 58
      Difficulties in Development: The Impact of Loss and Traumap. 59
         The attachment relationship and developmentp. 59
         Moving into foster and adoptive homesp. 63
         Supporting children with the experience of loss and separationp. 64
         Helping children recover from the trauma of early adverse parentingp. 65
         Safe place visualizationp. 68
      Parenting Children with Difficulties Experiencing Relationships as Securep. 71
         How can an understanding of attachment theory influence parenting?p. 71
         How can we increase feelings of safety for the child?p. 73
         Therapeutic helpp. 78
      Parenting and Patterns of Attachmentp. 83
         Parenting the child with an ambivalent attachment pattern of relatingp. 84
         Parenting the child with an avoidant attachment pattern of relatingp. 86
         Parenting the child with a disorganized/controlling attachment pattern of relatingp. 88
         Parenting the child who has not learnt to selectively attachp. 90
   A Model for Parenting the Child with Difficulties in Attachment Relationships: Providing a Secure Base
      Introduction to the Model and Creating a Secure Basep. 95
         The challenge of parenting children with difficult attachment relationship historiesp. 98
      Empathy and Support from the Secure Basep. 101
         What is empathy?p. 102
         Supporting internal experience and managing behaviourp. 103
         Understanding the impact of past experience on parentingp. 110
         Understanding your own attachment historyp. 113
      Attunement and Empathyp. 115
         What is meant by attunement?p. 116
         Managing difficult behaviour within attuned relationshipsp. 118
         How to help children experience attunement through relationship-based playp. 121
         Helping children develop understanding through attuned relationshipsp. 123
      Protecting the Family Atmosphere and the Development of Emotional Regulationp. 125
         What is a family atmosphere?p. 126
         Developing emotional regulationp. 128
         Additional theory: The process of attachment and the developing brainp. 130
      Creating a Feeling of Belonging for the Childp. 137
         The use of family rituals and claiming behaviours to help children feel that they belongp. 138
         Helping children who are angryp. 139
      Looking After Yourselfp. 145
         Making time for reflection and relaxationp. 146
         Stress and copingp. 150
         Making changesp. 151
         Stress thermometerp. 153
   A Model for Parenting the Child with Difficulties in Attachment Relationships: Building Relationships and Managing Behaviour
      Helping the Child to Enjoy Being Part of the Familyp. 157
         Enjoyment and belongingp. 158
         Additional theory: Socialization and shamep. 161
      Learning to Parent with PACE and Building Relationships with Storiesp. 165
         What is meant by PACE?p. 166
         Building relationships with storiesp. 171
         Stories written for childrenp. 173
      Providing Structure and Supervisionp. 181
         Using structure and supervision to help the child feel securep. 182
      Managing Confrontation and Coercive Interactionsp. 187
         How to step aside from confrontationp. 188
         Coercive patternsp. 190
         Helping children develop problem-solving abilitiesp. 195
      Thinking, Feeling and Behavioural Choicesp. 197
         Thinking, feeling and behavingp. 198
         The ABC of behaviourp. 201
         Rewardsp. 203
         The use of choices and logical consequencesp. 205
      Managing Special Difficulties: Lying, Stealing and Self-harmp. 209
         Children and young people who self-harmp. 209
         Managing risk of suicidep. 213
         Creating a safety planp. 214
         Helping the child who lies and stealsp. 216
      Conclusionp. 221
         The house completep. 221
   Referencesp. 225
   Further Readingp. 227
   Glossaryp. 231
   Subject Indexp. 233
   Author Indexp. 239