Table of Contents
   List of Tables and Figuresp. xi
   Prologue: At the Airportp. 1
   An airport scene
   Why study traditional societies?
   States
   Types of traditional societies
   Approaches, causes, and sources
   A small book about a big subject
   Plan of the book
   Setting the Stage by Dividing Space
      Friends, Enemies, Strangers, and Tradersp. 37
         A boundary
         Mutually exclusive territories
         Non-exclusive land use
         Friends, enemies, and strangers
         First contacts
         Trade and traders
         Market economies
         Traditional forms of trade
         Traditional trade items
         Who trades what?
         Tiny nations
   Peace and War
      Compensation for the Death of a Childp. 79
         An accident
         A ceremony
         What if ...?
         What the state did
         New Guinea compensation
         Life-long relationships
         Other non-state societies
         State authority
         State civil justice
         Defects in state civil justice
         State criminal justice
         Restorative justice
         Advantages and their price
      A Short Chapter, About a Tiny Warp. 119
         The Dani War
         The war's time-line
         The war's death toll
      A Longer Chapter, About Many Warsp. 129
         Definitions of war
         Sources of information
         Forms of traditional warfare
         Mortality rates
         Similarities and differences
         Ending warfare
         Effects of European contact
         Warlike animals, peaceful peoples
         Motives for traditional war
         Ultimate reasons
         Whom do people fight?
         Forgetting Pearl Harbor
   Young and Old
      Bringing Up Childrenp. 173
         Comparisons of child-rearing
         Childbirth
         Infanticide
         Weaning and birth interval
         On-demand nursing
         Infant-adult contact
         Fathers and allo-parents
         Responses to crying infants
         Physical punishment
         Child autonomy
         Multi-age playgroups
         Child play and education
         Their kids and our kids
      The Treatment of Old People: Cherish, Abandon, or Kill?p. 210
         The elderly
         Expectations about eldercare
         Why abandon or kill?
         Usefulness of old people
         Society's values
         Society's rules
         Better or worse today?
         What to do with older people?
   Danger and Response
      Constructive Paranoiap. 243
         Attitudes towards danger
         A night visit
         A boat accident
         Just a stick in the ground
         Taking risks
         Risks and talkativeness
      Lions and Other Dangersp. 276
         Dangers of traditional life
         Accidents
         Vigilance
         Human violence
         Diseases
         Responses to diseases
         Starvation
         Unpredictable food shortages
         Scatter your land
         Seasonality and food storage
         Diet broadening
         Aggregation and dispersal
         Responses to danger
   Religion, Language, and Health
      What Electric Eels Tell Us About the Evolution of Religionp. 323
         Questions about religion
         Definitions of religion
         Functions and electric eels
         The search for causal explanations
         Supernatural beliefs
         Religion's function of explanation
         Defusing anxiety
         Providing comfort
         Organization and obedience
         Codes of behavior towards strangers
         Justifying war
         Badges of commitment
         Measures of religious success
         Changes in religion's functions
      Speaking in Many Tonguesp. 369
         Multilingualism
         The world's language total
         How languages evolve
         Geography of language diversity
         Traditional multilingualism
         Benefits of bilingualism
         Alzheimer's disease
         Vanishing languages
         How languages disappear
         Are minority languages harmful?
         Why preserve languages?
         How can we protect languages?
      Salt, Sugar, Fat, and Slothp. 410
         Non-communicable diseases
         Our salt intake
         Salt and blood pressure
         Causes of hypertension
         Dietary sources of salt
         Diabetes
         Types of diabetes
         Genes, environment, and diabetes
         Pima Indians and Nauru Islanders
         Diabetes in India
         Benefits of genes for diabetes
         Why is diabetes low in Europeans?
         The future of non-communicable diseases
      Epilogue: At Another Airportp. 452
         From the jungle to the 405
         Advantages of the modern world
         Advantages of the traditional world
         What can we learn?
   Acknowledgmentsp. 467
   Further Readingsp. 471
   Indexp. 483
   Illustration Creditsp. 499